Guide: How to change the piston rings on 1.1 HSC

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Guide: How to change the piston rings on 1.1 HSC

Postby VUK on Tue Feb 22, 2005 10:35 pm

CHANGING PISTON RINGS ON 1.1 HSC 1989-1994
READ THE WHOLE GUIDE TO FULLY UNDERSTAND!

This may sound like a big job but it isn't.

You will need the following tools:

Socket set/spanner set and the usual stuff.
Torque wrench
Piston ring compressor
Loads of WD40
Feeler gauge (for adjusting tappets)
Drill wire brush
Normal wire brush

New parts:

Headgasket
Inlet manifold gasket
Exhaust manifold gaskets
Sump gasket? (if damaged, its v cheap btw, I think something like £1.10)
Rocker cover gasket? (if damaged)
Head bolts (x10), can be re-used (max 2x) so that depends on you
Piston rings, I got mine from fiesta centre for £44 delivered (01603 722333) STANDARD SIZE
Con rod cap bolts, £1.70 from ford spares x8, Haynes manual says that they cannot be re-used.

Haynes manual is a MUST! In there everything is explained and there are torque wrench settings etc. I suggest you read it few times just to be sure you understand everything.

When you are ready start by taking the air filter off, then the exhaust manifold, undo all the bolts and disconnect it from the rest of the exhaust so it can be removed. Disconnect all the radiator hoses and remove the radiator+fan.
Remove the inlet manifold bolts.

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The next stage is to take the head off, this is very simple. Unscrew 4 rocker cover bolts (10mm) and remove it, the undo 4 tappets assembly bolts gently and remove everything including the pushrods.

Image


Now you will have clear access to the head bolts (x10, 14mm), unscrew each in this order (I did).

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Now tap the side of the head with a hammer gently just to make it loose, lift the head and remove the head gasket. Then make sure 2 dowels are in the cylinder block just so they don’t get lost (see pic below).

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Cover the cylinders with something just to make sure nothing falls in.

Drain the oil from the engine and remove the sump bolts (10mm). I had problems to free the sump from the gasket, try sticking a screwdriver in the gap between the sump and the gasket in each corner.

Remove the sump.

Now, you will see the crankshaft and the conrods. Note on which side the conrod numbers go as they will have to be put back in the same way/order.

Image
Image

Each conrod has a number 1-4, piston closest to the gearbox is number 4, furthest number 1.
Undo the bolts gently, then separate the caps from the conrods. Make sure you don’t loose the bearing in the cap/conrod. The cap and the conrod have the number on the same side, it must be put back the same way. See pic below.

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Push the conrod upwards gently until the piston comes out from the top of the engine, do the same for all. Make sure the bearing doesn’t fall out or gets lost. If the bearings are damaged/scratched you must change them, if they are ok its up to you.

Image

Now remove the piston rings, one at a time and try not to scratch the piston too much by doing so.
After removing each ring, snap it in half (keep a set, for practice later) and use it to clean the carbon build-up from the piston ring gaps. Do the same for all.

NOTE THE WAY THE PISTON RINGS COME OUT, NO1 AND NO2 COMPRESSORS ARE DIFFERENT, THE NEW OIL CONTROL RING MAY NOT BE THE SAME AS THE ORIGINAL SO DON’T PANIC!

What I did next is use the wire brush on a drill to gently remove all the black crap from the piston face. Its up to you weather you clean it properly or not.
After that I used WD40 and a tooth brush to clean the piston ring ridges some more to be sure its done properly, again its up to you how clean you want it to be.

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Now the NEW piston rings go on. The oil control rings is very different from the original ford one. I had 2 separate oil rings and 2 spacers to fit, Click on link below for instructions.

http://www.aooo30.dsl.pipex.com/rings/RINGGUIDE.jpg

IMPORTANT (quote from Badgerboy)
________________________________________________________

You should hone the bores when changing the piston rings. You use a special tool attahed to a drill to break the glaze on the cylinder walls so the new rings can bed in. Failure to do this will usually result in blowby, which my car is suffering from. (New engine in 2 months, so sod it)
_________________________________________________________

Please ammend your guide to reflect this. I know you didn't bother to do this, but I think you simply got lucky. This is a standard practise, and should be carried out every piston ring change if you don't get the cylinders relined.

Take your time with this so you don’t damage anything.

After you have assembled the oil control ring move on and fit 2nd compressor then top compressor. This is easy enough, just expand them a bit so they fit over the piston, then move them down slowly. If unsure have a go with the old piston rings 1st.

If you read the Haynes manual you will know where the gaps go, reminder pic below.

Image
Image

Now when all piston rings have been fitted, oil the pistons a bit for smooth entry in to the cylinder then oil the cylinder walls as well. Then fit them back into the engine using the piston rings compressor (make sure the ring gaps are facing the right way), use a hammer (rubber handle) to push it in, shouldn’t take more then 30 min (see pic below).

Image


After fitting each piston, connect the conrod to the crankshaft and fit the new bolts loosely just so it holds it into place for now.

When all pistons are in and conrods connected (NOTE NUMBERS 1-4), use the torque wrench to tighten the bolts. TAKE CARE WHEN DOING THIS, TIGHTEN SLOWLY UNTILL THE TORQUE WRENCH CLICKS.

Now refit the sump and tighten all the bolts, see Haynes manual for more info on that if unsure.

Clean the tappets with a wire brush and WD40.
Clean the pushrods the same way.
Clean the valves with a drill wire brush, do this gently.

Place the dowel fitment back into the block and place the head gasket on the top.
Place the head back onto the engine, put the head bolts in and tighten them the the following order (as seen in Haynes manual)

Image

Torque wrench settings are in the manual!

Insert the pushrods back into their holes and refit the tappets assembly.

NOTE: Make sure the pushrods are in place on top where it sits in the tappets before tightening it.

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Tighten the 4 bolts bit by bit.

Adjust the tappets using the feeler gauge, I think there is a guide about this, if you need more help I will make a guide for that as well.

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Fit the rocker cover.

Install new inlet manifold gasket, make sure there are no remains of old gasket stuck anywhere, use a bit of grease to stick the gasket onto the engine as it is very fiddly.
Install inlet manifold bolts and tighten them (make sure you don’t over do it)

Install the exhaust manifold gaskets and fit the manifold back on.

Fit the radiator and attach all the hoses and fill it with water.

Fit new OIL filter and put GOOD QUALITY oil into the engine! (Not 20w50 for £2.99 :D )

Remove the spark plugs (if not done so) and turn the engine over for a min or so I did this just to get everything oiled before firing up.

Fit the sparkplugs back in.

Fingers crossed, fire it up and if everything OK leave to idle for few hours.

Then take it for a drive, I haven’t exceeded 2,000 rpm for 1st 500m, apply gentle excelaration and try keep the speed constant to reduce engine load. Change the oil after 500m. At 1,000 miles it should be run in, although I am not sure about this.

Hope I helped!
Any comments or questions welcome!
Last edited by VUK on Wed Aug 31, 2005 10:28 pm, edited 4 times in total.
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Postby Ollybee on Tue Feb 22, 2005 10:53 pm

That's a quality guide!!

How long did the work take you?
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Postby VUK on Tue Feb 22, 2005 10:54 pm

fitting the pistons back in 30min, cleaning everything 2 hours, fitting piston rings 1 hour (take it slow)

So total maybe 6 hours max
1995 Fiesta SI 3 door, green something, 2L + diesel gearbox in(130mph @ 5,000rpm :o), focus inlet in, + k&n, passed mot without a cat :D < FIESTA FOR SALE! GOT A BMW 528I SE MANUAL NOW :)
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Postby paradox on Wed Feb 23, 2005 10:47 am

Great guide mate but i would have been a good idea to lap the valves in while the head was off.
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Postby VUK on Wed Feb 23, 2005 12:43 pm

paradox wrote:Great guide mate but i would have been a good idea to lap the valves in while the head was off.


No idea what that is?
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Postby paradox on Wed Feb 23, 2005 1:23 pm

you remove the valves and using fine grinding paste and a lapping tool yourefinish the valve seats to give the valves a proper seal against the valve seats.
Its also wise to decoke the ports on the head while its off.
If you have a look in your haynes manual it will explain it in there.
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Postby VUK on Wed Feb 23, 2005 3:53 pm

yea I was thinking to do that can maybe change the valve guides.

didn't have enough money at the time
1995 Fiesta SI 3 door, green something, 2L + diesel gearbox in(130mph @ 5,000rpm :o), focus inlet in, + k&n, passed mot without a cat :D < FIESTA FOR SALE! GOT A BMW 528I SE MANUAL NOW :)
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Postby paradox on Thu Feb 24, 2005 3:31 pm

Did you change the bottom end bearings while the pistons were out?

It might be an idea to edit your guide so ppl know to do the valve stem seals, decoking,lapping the valves in replacing the bearings etc.

I can understand money is a problem for most ppl but it will save time and heart ache to do all theese jobs at once and it will save you money in the long run.
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Postby VUK on Thu Feb 24, 2005 4:12 pm

paradox wrote:Did you change the bottom end bearings while the pistons were out?

It might be an idea to edit your guide so ppl know to do the valve stem seals, decoking,lapping the valves in replacing the bearings etc.

I can understand money is a problem for most ppl but it will save time and heart ache to do all theese jobs at once and it will save you money in the long run.


I didn't replace the bearings, don't see why, they are fine.

How is "decoking" done?

I will edit the guide later
1995 Fiesta SI 3 door, green something, 2L + diesel gearbox in(130mph @ 5,000rpm :o), focus inlet in, + k&n, passed mot without a cat :D < FIESTA FOR SALE! GOT A BMW 528I SE MANUAL NOW :)
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Postby foomaniac on Sat Mar 19, 2005 1:56 am

does this not qualify as a guide?! project could you move it?! its done wonders for me and someones just asked for something similar! it might as well go where it belongs!

some of us do unfortunately have to run these 1.1 bone bags ( for me i'm getting either a 1.6 si or a 1.25 mk4 si in september)

either way its helped keep my tortoise on the road .... maybe help to others...
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Postby Project on Sat Mar 19, 2005 1:53 pm

Hokay :aviator:
<< I need to put something here, yer? >>
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Postby Badgerboy on Sun Apr 03, 2005 11:09 pm

Doing this on Saturday. Worth renewing the timing chain at the same time?
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Postby Badgerboy on Mon Apr 11, 2005 10:20 am

w00t! Did mine on the the weekend.

Lapped the valves in, new stem seals, new big end bearings, timing chain, new rings, cleaned everything.... and it still works!

Problems with parts (Ford only gave me half the bearings I needed, gimps), and then discovering that the last piston ring in the set was snapped (Had to hunt around for one of those on Sunday!)

Turned over and started first time, and runs lovely. (For a HCS!) It even purrs! A HCS purring! Madness!

I digress, if anyone needs any help doing their engine in the furture, feel happy to PM me, and I can offer advise if needed.
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Postby AW3K on Mon Apr 11, 2005 11:08 am

hi

great guide

what tool do you need to remove the conrod bolts? they look funny?


thanks

Andy
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Postby Badgerboy on Mon Apr 11, 2005 12:08 pm

You should use a star shaped socket. You 'can' do it with a normal socket, but its more likely your will shear the heads off.

Make sure you DO NOT reuse the old bolts, and that you use a torque wrench to tighten them. (Set for 8nm) If you over tighten them, they will snap! (I found this out the hard way!)
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Postby AW3K on Mon Apr 11, 2005 1:34 pm

Badgerboy wrote:You should use a star shaped socket. You 'can' do it with a normal socket, but its more likely your will shear the heads off.

Make sure you DO NOT reuse the old bolts, and that you use a torque wrench to tighten them. (Set for 8nm) If you over tighten them, they will snap! (I found this out the hard way!)


oh right,

what size is such socket?

i've never seen a star socket before?

Andy
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Postby Badgerboy on Mon Apr 11, 2005 1:47 pm

Neither had I till I raided my mates toolbox. They do sell them, try your local motor factors. You best off buying the conrod bolts, then heading down to the shop to find a sokcet that fits. It will fit onto a normal ratchet no problem.
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Postby VUK on Tue Apr 12, 2005 12:54 pm

AW3K wrote:hi

great guide

what tool do you need to remove the conrod bolts? they look funny?


thanks

Andy


8mm standard socket fits perfectly
1995 Fiesta SI 3 door, green something, 2L + diesel gearbox in(130mph @ 5,000rpm :o), focus inlet in, + k&n, passed mot without a cat :D < FIESTA FOR SALE! GOT A BMW 528I SE MANUAL NOW :)
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Postby VUK on Tue Apr 12, 2005 1:00 pm

If anyone needs big end bearings they are £14 inc vat from fiesta centre (tel number above)
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Postby Badgerboy on Tue Apr 12, 2005 7:29 pm

VUK wrote:
AW3K wrote:hi

great guide

what tool do you need to remove the conrod bolts? they look funny?


thanks

Andy


8mm standard socket fits perfectly


It might, but I prefer to use the correct tools for the job. A star socket should be used on a star shaped head.
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Postby mk3phill on Sun Jul 31, 2005 2:23 am

just a quick question,..will this guide be the same for the 1.1 cfi, as me and a friend wer planning on stripping out and cleangin my engine to clean it up :rolleyes: (regain lost power :devil: ) and how much money was spent as i do not wish to start it before i can get the funding and spare cash if anything goes wrong. thanks
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Postby Badgerboy on Mon Aug 01, 2005 2:01 pm

IMPORTANT

You should hone the bores when changing the piston rings. You use a special tool attahed to a drill to break the glaze on the cylinder walls so the new rings can bed in. Failure to do this will usually result in blowby, which my car is suffering from. (New engine in 2 months, so sod it)

Please ammend your guide to reflect this. I know you didn't bother to do this, but I think you simply got lucky. This is a standard practise, and should be carried out every piston ring change if you don't get the cylinders relined.
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Postby musicdrummer42 on Tue Aug 02, 2005 3:35 pm

Badgerboy wrote:IMPORTANT

You should hone the bores when changing the piston rings. You use a special tool attahed to a drill to break the glaze on the cylinder walls so the new rings can bed in. Failure to do this will usually result in blowby, which my car is suffering from. (New engine in 2 months, so sod it)

Please ammend your guide to reflect this. I know you didn't bother to do this, but I think you simply got lucky. This is a standard practise, and should be carried out every piston ring change if you don't get the cylinders relined.


do you know where i can get one of these tools from? i was thinking this, cos the new rings would be wider than the old ones, so wouldn't fit.
< Pete >< Peugeot 306 1.9 DTurbo >< 118bhp 155 lb/ft >< FOR SALE £1000 >
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Postby Badgerboy on Tue Aug 02, 2005 8:26 pm

Most motor factors do them. They look like this....

Image

Haynes should tell you how to use it properly, if the supplied instructions don't.

As for the size of the rings, you will be compressing them when you fit them anyway. The idea of honing is to break the glaze formed on the cylinder walls. Otherwise the rings will not bed in, and oil can get by.
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Postby VUK on Wed Aug 31, 2005 10:31 pm

Badgerboy wrote:Most motor factors do them. They look like this....

Image

Haynes should tell you how to use it properly, if the supplied instructions don't.

As for the size of the rings, you will be compressing them when you fit them anyway. The idea of honing is to break the glaze formed on the cylinder walls. Otherwise the rings will not bed in, and oil can get by.


I must be really lucky then because i didn't hone my engine and so far no problems.

I have just returned from a trip around the europe in my fez, everything still perfect :)
1995 Fiesta SI 3 door, green something, 2L + diesel gearbox in(130mph @ 5,000rpm :o), focus inlet in, + k&n, passed mot without a cat :D < FIESTA FOR SALE! GOT A BMW 528I SE MANUAL NOW :)
http://www.finalgear.com
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Postby VUK on Sun Sep 11, 2005 9:53 pm

mk3phill wrote:just a quick question,..will this guide be the same for the 1.1 cfi, as me and a friend wer planning on stripping out and cleangin my engine to clean it up :rolleyes: (regain lost power :devil: ) and how much money was spent as i do not wish to start it before i can get the funding and spare cash if anything goes wrong. thanks

gasket set £10
rings £40
bearing cap bolts £16

if you need new big ends + £14
1995 Fiesta SI 3 door, green something, 2L + diesel gearbox in(130mph @ 5,000rpm :o), focus inlet in, + k&n, passed mot without a cat :D < FIESTA FOR SALE! GOT A BMW 528I SE MANUAL NOW :)
http://www.finalgear.com
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Postby ADIMK3 on Mon Jan 15, 2007 2:10 pm

Hi,


Soon I'll have to rebuild my 1.1.Your guide is excellent but something is wrong with the pictures within.Do you still have the pictures?It would help me a lot since I'm not a mechanic.


Thank you,

Adrian
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Postby hurrell on Wed Jan 24, 2007 4:21 pm

get the pics sorted out i need them lol :bonkers:
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Re: Guide: How to change the piston rings on 1.1 HSC

Postby rub73 on Fri Nov 23, 2012 12:25 pm

Hi, is it possible to have the pictures back online again? Thanks!!
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Re: Guide: How to change the piston rings on 1.1 HSC

Postby motard2k on Mon Jun 16, 2014 12:31 pm

Hi. I am just one more crazy guy considering to follow this guide (by myself)! The thing is: what about those pictures that might be very helpful? Does anyone have it? Also sent VUK member a PM. Hope that someone can help. Regards
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